Information about buying and selling real property

What should you remember when buying or selling real property in Finland?

THE SELLER

  • Present the certificate of title or other documents that prove your ownership of the property that you are selling.
  • Present the certificate of mortgages and encumbrances which also shows any special rights, distraints, restrictions of use as well as restrictions of property rights that apply to the property.
  • Present a cadastral certificate which shows amongst other things how the property has been formed as well as its identification number and area.
  • Other documents that you might need include a map of the unseparated parcel in question, an agreement to divide the possession between joint owners or a lease agreement concerning the property.

THE BUYER

  • Demand to see the certificate of title and the certificate of mortgages and encumbrances of the property that you are buying. The documents should be as recent as possible.
  • Apply for a new registration of title or registration of lease as soon as possible after the sale has been concluded.
  • If you need information on building permits or restrictions, contact the local building supervision authority.
  • If the object of the sale is an unseparated parcel, the parcelling procedure is initiated automatically by the National Land Survey.

OTHER

  • The sale can be authenticated by a public purchase witness only when all of its parties are present.
  • In some situations depending on the location of the property and its area, the municipality may have the right of pre-emption on the property.

To receive a certificate of title, a certificate of mortgages and encumbrances or a cadastral certificate, please contact any District Survey Office, the municipality or the state local register office.

What is a real property?

The expression real property usually refers to a real property unit or a plot that has been registered in the cadastre. Designated share, for its part, is used in situations where the real property has joint ownership (e.g. ½ and ½).  Unseparated parcel usually means an area which is not separated from the property but which nevertheless has designated boundaries. However, provisions that concern unseparated parcels also apply to an area that is parcelled out of a joint property unit as well as on an interest in a joint property unit that belongs to the real property in case the interest is conveyed separately.

When a real property or some other of the above mentioned objects changes owner, i.e. immovable property is conveyed from one owner to another, one must apply for registration of title. Acquisitions include for example the transactions of buying and selling, exchanges, receiving or giving a gift, partitions, inheritances and testaments. The validity of the acquisition is inspected in connection with the processing of the registration of title.