NLS Aerial photographs

An aerial photograph is a photograph of the terrain taken from an aeroplane. The images are vertical photographs applicable to be used in mapping. The aerial photographs are reprocessed into dimensionally accurate images called orthophotos.

Aerial photographs are available since the 1930s, depending on the area. Aerial photographs are available in black and white, colour and infrared. The size and accuracy of aerial photos depend on the camera, photography scale and altitude or ground sample distance (GSD).

The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it

Purpose:

Aerial photos are used to make stereo models and orthophotos, which in turn are used for mapping. Aerial photos are used as such, for instance, for researching historical objects and analysing changes in the environment.

Oriented aerial photographs are used in stereoscopic photo interpretation for drawing up contour lines, for example. The oriented aerial photographs can be directly used in EspaCity software.

Geographic location
Entire Finland
Responsible party

National Land Survey of Finland

Pixel size
0.25 m
0.3 m
0.4 m
0.5 m
Spatial representation
Raster
Data content

Versions of aerial photos

Film, 1:16 000 black-and-white

A black-and-white aerial photograph consists of a maximum of 256 different greyscale values.

Film, 1:31 000 black-and-white

A black-and-white aerial photograph consists of a maximum of 256 different greyscale values.

Film, 1:31 000 colour-infrared

In addition to visible light, the heat radiation (infrared radiation) reflected by the photographed objects is shown on the photo, consists of three colour channels (near-IR, red, green) each colour channel contains a maximum of 256 different shade values.

Film, 1:20 000 black-and-white

A black-and-white aerial photograph consists of a maximum of 256 different greyscale values.

Film, 1:20 000 colour-infrared

In addition to visible light, the heat radiation (infrared radiation) reflected by the photographed objects is shown on the photo, consists of three colour channels (near-IR, red, green), each colour channel contains 256 different shade values.

Digital pixel size 0.5 m all colour channels

Consists of four colour channels (red, green, blue and near-IR).

Digital pixel size 0.4 m all colour channels

Consists of four colour channels (red, green, blue and near-IR).

Digital pixel size 0.3 m all colour channels

Consists of four colour channels (red, green, blue and near-IR).

Digital pixel size 0.25 m all colour channels

Consists of four colour channels (red, green, blue and near-IR).

Maintenance

The updating frequency of product versions 0.4 m and 0.5 m is 3–10 years, depending on the area.

Product versions 0.3 m and 0.25 m do not have a maintenance plan.

The area that the NLS aerial photographs cover depends on the annual mapping needs of the agency.

Coverage index maps (in Finnish): https://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/maastotiedonyllapito

Lineage

NLS aerial photographs function as the initial dataset in producing topographic data.

Aerial photographs are images that are taken from a plane with a sensor suitable for mapping purposes. The size of the area covered by the aerial photo depends on the photographing altitude. Until 2008, the NLS aerial photos were taken with a film camera, and since 2009, with a digital camera.

A digital aerial photo is produced of smaller pictures taken with eight cameras. The colour information is attached to the panchromatic high-resolution picture by a technique called pansharpening. The result is a picture that consists of four colour channels (red, blue, green and near-infrared).

The positional accuracy of an object depends on the structure and altitude of the camera. The images are affected by geometric defect due to central projection and altitude differences in the terrain. The defect is greatest near the edges of the image and smallest in the middle.

Conformity
2010-05-03
The product does not meet the specifications.
Distributor

National Land Survey of Finland customerservice@nls.fi

Conditions applying to access and use

The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey. Open data license:

http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/opendata-licence-cc40

More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it

Aerial photographs can be ordered by pieces that cover a certain area.

Limitations on access

Copyright and the other immaterial rights on the data set NLS Aerial photographs are owned by the National Land Survey of Finland. The data material is not confidential. Public access to the material is not restricted by the INSPIRE Directive. Areas defined by the Finnish Defence Forces may limit the access to aerial photographs in some regions.

Distribution format
Tiff
Further information

The metadata of the aerial photographs is provided in connection with the delivery, if requested.

Maanmittauslaitoksen ilmakuva

Product Price € (excl. VAT) Price € (incl. VAT)
7710305537
Ilmakuvan orientointitiedot
22,02 27,30
7710285528
Ilmakuva (ensimmäinen kuva)
89,27 110,70
7710285529
Ilmakuva seuraavat kuvat samasta kuvauksesta
15,00 18,60
7710285530
Laajat ilmakuvatilaukset €/ h
92,02 114,10

Minimituntiveloitus on 15 minuuttia.

Not based on a decree